RESPECT was a multicenter randomized controlled trial that enrolled 980 subjects with PFO and prior stroke. The study compared PFO closure with the Amplatzer PFO Occluder (Abbott, Lake Bluff, IL) vs. medical therapy (aspirin, warfarin, clopidogrel, or aspirin + dipyridamole). The trial found that the incidence of ischemic stroke or early death after randomization was lower with PFO closure than with medical therapy at a mean of 5.9 years of follow-up.