SCAI, in concert with the American Academy of Neurology, recommended operator and institutional volumes necessary to begin and sustain a PFO closure program. Operators should have performed >50 structural/congenital interventional procedures with either ³25 septal interventions or ³12 PFO closures. Operators should continue to perform ³30 septal interventions or ³15 PFO closures over a 2-year period. Institutions should have performed >100 structural/congenital interventional procedures in the 2 years prior to PFO program initiation. Institutions should continue to perform ³50 such procedures annually including ³25 septal interventions or ³12 PFO closures.
All Authors: Eric Horlick MD, FSCAI (Chair); Clifford J. Kavinsky MD, PhD, MSCAI (Co‐Chair); Zahid Amin MD, MSCAI; Konstantinos Dean Boudoulas MD, FSCAI; John D. Carroll MD, MSCAI; Ziyad M. Hijazi MD, MSCAI; Dana Leifer MD, FAAN; Helmi L. Lutsep MD, FAAN; John F. Rhodes MD, FSCAI; and Jonathan M. Tobis MD, MSCAI.
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